Remember the time when you caught a firefly on that monsoon night when you were eight or nine and held it between your cupped hands, watching it blink through a tiny gap? The days when the sight of these flashing insects was not uncommon even in the cities!
These gentle blinkers come alive during moist weather, punctuating the late evening air with flashes of yellow, neon green or pale red.
An average beetle-Joe during the day, it transforms into a magical creature once the sun sets. A sprinkle of the same species of fireflies (that’s right, a sprinkle is what a group of fireflies is called!) sometimes sync their flashing patterns and put up an extraordinary twinkling performance which is a treat for the curious child and tired adult alike.
Their Chemical Romance
So why do fireflies blink? (Besides clearly wanting to entertain us!) To seduce a mate, of course! Gentlemen fireflies flirtatiously advertise their virility with long winks while floating over leafy bushes where the belles are settled. The intricate patterns of their glow vary with steady flashes when two individuals are courting. When a lady firefly spots her gallant inamorato, she blinks to imitate his, and what follows is ‘fireworks’!
Wait, but how does this blinking business work? Fireflies have an enzyme luciferase and a chemical luciferin in their abdomens that combine with other elements to create bioluminescence. This light is more efficient than any that humans have created; 100% light with no heat, UV or IR radiation.
A Wet Habitat Makes a Healthy Firefly
Fireflies, or rather the hungry larvae, like the dampness of rainy areas and are found in abundance around water bodies. Wet weather in wooded areas and marshes are a haven for the larvae (or glow-worms as they’re also called) as that’s where they find their favourite food.
Eggs are laid by fireflies on soil or just below the surface of the ground. The larvae from the eggs then go on to pupate either in a self-made mud chamber or hanging upside down from a tree.
Diets and Defences
Contrary to what is widely believed of fireflies adorably munching on leaves in the cartoon world, the larvae of fireflies have a dark secret that most people aren’t aware of. They’re carnivorous and feast on snails, slugs, insects and worms after injecting the prey with digestive enzymes that immobilize and liquefying it.
As attractive as they are, fireflies are prey to none. This is because they are armed with lucibufagins, which sounds like a cousin of Bilbo Baggins but is a steroid that tastes disgusting – and even slightly poisonous to some attackers. This leads predators to associate the sight of a flashing bug with unappetising dinner, hence leaving it alone.